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Archive for July, 2014

Create All 10 Surface Profiles

Friday, July 25th, 2014

Did You Know You Can Create All 10 Surface Profiles with a SMITH?

create all 10 surface profiles

When you select the right machine and cutter drum assembly – and also apply the SMITHing technique, you can achieve the your desired Surface Profile (SP). Any of the 10 Surface Profiles may be created with a variety of tools, equipment and materials, depending on the type of overlay system and material thickness to be installed.

What Are Surface Profiles?

Create All 10 Surface Profiles

The surface profile (SP) chart is used as a visual representation of desired surface textures, roughness, and general appearance on concrete or asphalt. Each profile has a corresponding number, ranging from SP1 (nearly flat) to SP10 (extremely rough). The surface profile is defined as the measurement of the average distance from the peaks of the surface to the valleys, as seen through a cross-section of the prepared substrate.

The texture and appearance of the profile obtained through the surface-preparation process will vary, depending upon the concrete/asphalt strength, composition, aggregate and finish. On sound surfaces, the range of variation can be controlled to represent these standards, however, as removal depth increases, the profile of the prepared substrate will be increasingly dominant by the type and size of the coarse aggregate.

Confirmation that the desired profile has been achieved during the surface-preparation process is done by visually inspecting the surface, then comparing it to the profiles depicted by replica profile tiles, replica putty, replica tape, or SP photos (as seen in the image above).

Learn More…

To find out how you can achieve all 10 profiles using your equipment or a SMITH, please contact your SMITH Representative today.


Safety Impact of Surface Preparation and Pavement Marking Removal to Workers and the Environment 

Monday, July 21st, 2014

Safety Impact of Surface Preparation and Pavement Marking Removal to Workers and the Environment 

When preparing surface for pavement markings or removing existing pavement markings, the environmental and worker safety impacts of the process needs to be considered. Based on the removal technique used and the composition of the pavement markings removed, different regulations may need to be addressed for each removal project. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Protection of the Environment, is the governing document for federal regulations concerning the environment. CFR Title 29, Labor, is the governing document for federal regulations concerning workers.

Hazardous Waste Determination

Under EPA hazardous waste regulations, the term generator is defined by 40 CFR 260.10 as follows: Generator means any person, by site, whose act or process produces hazardous waste identified or listed in part 261 of this chapter or whose act first causes a hazardous waste to become subject to regulation.

In most cases, waste from activities associated with removing pavement marking materials or surface preparation will be associated with a work site. Thus, each work site could constitute a separate generator location. The hazardous wastes must be sent to a treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF) located in the United States that is “permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to manage municipal or industrial solid waste” (40 CFR 261.5 (f )(3)). Most local industrial or municipal solid waste landfills can accept such waste. Such facilities typically have their own requirements for accepting certain wastes, including hazardous waste.

Waste from Preparing Road Surfaces or Removal of Pavement Marking Materials include:

  • Chemicals and compounds found in and mixed with the pavement marking materials
  • Pavement (e.g., asphalt or concrete);
  • Contaminants on the pavement surface, such as oil, grease,or heavy metals such as lead or chromium; and
  • Material associated with the removal process, such as sand from sand blasting or water from high-pressure water blasting.

Hazardous Waste

In order to determine whether a surface preparation and pavement marking removal waste stream is producing toxic hazardous waste, the responsible party should either test the waste using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) described in 40 CFR 261.24, or apply knowledge of the waste stream to make this determination. As each waste stream is different, this study cannot present a universal determination of all pavement marking waste streams with respect to the applicability of hazardous waste rules. In order to determine whether these solid wastes are hazardous, four lists must be checked, along with the definitions of characteristic hazardous wastes. http://www.epa. gov/oppt/newchems/index.htm

Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) regulates discharges of pollutants from a point source into navigable waters. Such discharges are regulated under the EPA’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Non-point sources of water pollution are also regulated under the CWA. The Non-point Source Management Program provides grant money for states, territories, and Native American tribes to support a variety of activities to control non-point sources of water pollution. These activities may include technical assistance, financial assistance, education, training, technology transfer, demonstration projects, and monitoring.

Clean Air Act

Air emissions regulated under the Federal Clean Air Act (CAA) that may be associated with removing pavement markings include particulate matter, lead, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Particulate matter is regulated under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs). The NAAQSs regulate six criteria pollutants: carbon dioxide, lead, nitrogen oxide, PM10 (particulate matter smaller than, or equal to, 10 micrometers in diameter), PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter), ozone, and sulfur dioxide.

Health and Safety Requirements

Some of the worker health and safety requirements associated with surface preparation and pavement marking removal include exposure to noise, lead, hexavalent chromium, silica, and asbestos. Health and safety aspects that are standard to construction and maintenance activities such as interaction with heavy machinery and traffic are also considered.

Exposure to Lead

When surface preparation and pavement marking removal activities expose workers to lead, it is regulated under 29 CFR 1926.62 et seq. Regulation 29 CFR 1926.62(c)(1) establishes a permissible exposure limit (PEL) for lead at a maximum of 50 μg/m3 of air averaged over an 8 hr period. The PEL is measured as a function of what a worker may breathe in.

The standard applies to:

  • Demolition or salvage of structures where lead or materials containing lead are present;
  • Removal or encapsulation of materials containing lead;
  • New construction, alteration, repair, or renovation of structures, substrates, or portions thereof, that contain lead, or materials containing lead;
  • Installation of products containing lead;
  • Lead contamination/emergency cleanup;
  • Transportation, disposal, storage, or containment of lead or materials containing lead on the site or location at which construction activities are performed; and
  • Maintenance operations associated with the construction activities described in this paragraph.

Exposure to Silica and Asbestos

OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1926.55, Appendix A, establishes threshold limit values (TLVs) for airborne contaminants for construction activities. Values include TLVs for seven silica compounds and six silicates (with less than 1 percent crystal- line silica). OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1910.1001(c) establishes a worker exposure limit to airborne asbestos of 0.1 fiber per cubic centi- meter of air as an 8-hr time-weighted average. The regulation identifies monitoring and other requirements associated with ensuring that this standard is met. For working environments where workers may be exposed to a TLV for silica or an asbestos exposure limit, monitoring and worker protection measures may be required. With respect to pavement surfaces and pavement marking products, the area of focus would be removing marking materials (including glass beads) that may contain silica. Some removal processes (e.g., blasting or grinding) can generate dust from the marking materials and pavement.


When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each. If the sum of the following fractions C1/T1+C2/ T2Cn/Tn—exceeds unity, then the mixed exposure should be considered to exceed the limit value. Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specified noise level, and Tn indicates the total time of exposure permitted at that level. Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level. may contain silica that would also need to be considered in the TLV along with the removed marking material and any removed road surface material that may become airborne.

Applying and removing traffic markings or preparing surfaces may require noise protection for exposed workers. The OSHA requirements for noise control and hearing conservation are set forth in 29 CFR 1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure. This regula- tion establishes permissible noise exposures for short time periods (hr or less) up to a full 8-hr day. Noise levels that exceed the permissible noise exposure levels require hearing protection, noise reduction, and in certain instances, hearing conservation programs. Table 56 indicates the permissible noise levels established in 29 CFR 1910.95(b).

Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues Related to Asphalt and Concrete Surfaces

The general environmental health and safety issues of pavement marking removal and surface preparation are discussed in the previous section. This section will look specifically at how these issues relate to specific forms of removal on specific road surfaces. Worker safety issues and the impact from the marking material removed will be similar for all road surfaces.

Grinding with and without Dust Collection protection equipment

Environmental and Worker Safety Considerations – Asphalt and Seal Coat Surfaces

Drum style or rotary Grinding equipment can be used for surface preparation and removal of all pavement marking materials on asphalt. Solid waste generated from the removal process would include the marking material, asphalt and oil, and other contaminants on the asphalt surface. Asphalt contains aliphatic hydrocarbons in addition to the mononuclear aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures found in both asphalt and tars (Irwin et al. 1997). Waste material resulting from grinding will be subject to hazardous waste determination if it is suspected the waste has hazardous constituents. The waste should either be tested using the TCLP, or knowledge of the waste stream should be applied to make this determination. The results of this determination will dictate how the waste should be disposed.

It is possible for asphalt waste to create a hazard to aquatic life due to the PAHs and alkyl PAHs in asphalt that can move into the aquatic ecosystem from the breakdown of asphalt. However, the effects of the low concentrations of these contaminants associated with asphalt to aquatic life or waterfowl are unknown. Hazards to humans associated with asphalt include inhalation of compounds in heated or fresh asphalt as well as ingestion of PAHs entering the food chain as the result of breakdown of asphalt. Asphalt can lower contaminant leaching rates by binding contaminants in the asphalt matrix. The amount the leaching is lowered depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particular environment. Chemical and physical actions on the asphalt can break it down. Greases can soften asphalt, while xylene and toluene can diffuse through it. Under certain conditions, solvents and road salts can accelerate the breakdown of asphalt.

As the asphalt road surface wears away, road dust and other erosion components are a potential source of PAHs in the sediments of urban waterways. Asphalt wear products may be responsible for some of the petroleum in urban runoff as well as for some of the PAHs found in the sediments of some urban lakes.

The chemical constituents in the pavement markings will be reflected in the grinding waste. A projection of the potential contaminants can be made by reviewing the constituents listed in the product MSDS. Grinding can expose workers to contaminants contained in the dust particles, including lead, chromium, silica, and asbestos. Noise exposure can also be a concern.

Environmental and Worker Safety Considerations – PCC Surfaces

The concrete waste material produced from rotary and drum style grinding to prepare surfaces or remove pavement markings on PCC pavement has a low environmental impact. The most notable impact is a potential increase in pH in surrounding soil if waste material is mixed in it. The primary impacts will be from the chemicals in the marking materials and other contaminants on the roadway surface. Waste material resulting from rotary or drum style grinding on PCC pavement will be subject to hazardous waste determination. The waste should either be tested using the TCLP, or knowledge of the waste stream should be applied to make this determination. The results of this determination will dictate how the waste should be disposed of.

APWA Florida Public Works Expo

Tuesday, July 1st, 2014

Come to the APWA Florida Public Works Expo!

APWA Florida Public Works Expo

Since 1990, SMITH Manufacturing is a Broward County producer of fast and easy ADA removal solutions to help make your roadways, bikeways and walkways safer and longer-lasting.

Attend APWA Florida Public Works Expo FREE July 10:

We invite you to visit SMITH at the APWA Florida Public Works Expo this July 10 at the Broward County Convention Center.

Visit the SMITH removal experts at booth #820 to discuss how you can immediately reduce your ADA exposure on sidewalks and roadways. As a bonus, bring your business card for a chance to win a FREE SMITH machine, cutters or services! Click here for details and a free hall pass.

Can’t Attend?

We invite you to visit our factory in Pompano Beach to see the only manufacturing facility dedicated to building the fastest and easiest ADA removal tools to help reduce your liabilities. If you can’t visit, please click here to schedule a FREE Removal Analysis to reduce your ADA liabilities.

We know removal is hard work. SMITH helps make it easier.

See you in Fort Lauderdale!


© 2017 SMITH Surface-Prep Solutions - 1610 S. Dixie Highway, Pompano Beach, FL 33060-8913
Toll Free: 1-800-653-9311 | Ph: 954-941-9744 | Fax: 954-545-0348
Specifications and data are subject to change without notice.